What do you think of when you hear the word creation? Does your mind conjure up thoughts of an artist skillfully crafting a piece of art; or perhaps you think on a larger scale and you contemplate on the origin of mankind and our planet Earth; or grander still, you may imagine the creation of the universe. This article will address the creation of the universe, and the many different beliefs surrounding it.
Modern Science has given a name to describe the study of creation when regarding the universe, that term is Cosmology (not to be confused with cosminology or hairdressing). Cosmology is a broad term encompassing many different views and areas of study. To get a better understanding, we must truly comprehend the definition of the word.
Definitions of COSMOLOGY
Defines Cosmology as; (from the Greek ko,smo, [kosmos] which has been translated as "world" and logia, [logia] meaning "study of") the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
- a. a branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe
b. a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe
- A branch of astronomy that deals with the origin, structure, and space-time relationships of the universe; also a theory dealing with these matters
- The study of the physical universe considered as a totality of phenomena in time and space.
a. The astrophysical study of the history, structure, and constituent dynamics of the universe.
b. A specific theory or model of this structure and these dynamics.
- A philosophical, religious, or mythical explanation of the nature and structure of the universe.
From the above dictionaries we can conclude that the study of cosmology is defined as:
- a study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
- can be a branch of metaphysics and/or astronomy
- is a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe
- may also be philosophical, religious, or mythical explanation
To put this into a one-sentence definition, I feel we can safely say that;
Cosmology is a field of study focusing on the origin, evolution, and fate of the universe in order to develope a scienctific, philosophical, or religious theory (doctrine) of creation.
History of Cosmology
The practice of Cosmology is as old as humankind.
Mankind has always made an to attempt to understand the world around them, and the Universe was what they immediately interacted with. Cosmological things were weather, earthquakes, sharp changes in environment, etc. Things outside of the daily experience often appeared supernatural, and so this beginning time of Cosmology has been given the title by the scientific community as "the time of Magic Cosmology."
The earliest physical evidence of astronomical and cosmological thinking is a lunar calendar found on a bone fragment in Sub-Saharan Africa dated at about 20,000 BC. Late megalithic structures with astronomical purpose appear in Africa and Europe around 5,000 BC (primitive versions of the famous Stonehenge complex in Britain). The earliest recorded astronomical observation is the Nebra sky disk from northern Europe dating approximately 1,600 BC. This 30 cm bronze disk depicts the Sun, a lunar crescent and stars (including the Pleiades star cluster). The disk is probably a religious symbol as well as a crude astronomical instrument or calendar. In the Western Hemisphere, similar understanding of basic stellar and planetary behavior was developing. For example, Native American cultures around the same time were leaving rock drawings, or petroglyphs, of astronomical phenomenon.
Early cultures depicted a world where everything was alive, rooted in their thoughts and feelings, they produced their own spiritual beings or gods, and their own creation myths. Through prayers, sacrifices, and gifts to the spirits, human beings sought to gain control of the phenomena of their world. This is an anthropomorphic (magic) worldview, of the living earth, water, wind, and fire into which men and women projected their own emotions and motives as the guiding forces. As humankind began to organize themselves and develop what we now term culture, we start to see the development of myths, predominantly creation myths, to explain the origin of the Universe. Most myths retain a supernatural theme, having spirits, gods, divine and semi-divine figures. The creation Myth endeavored to provide understanding of the everyday world events that were happening around them. They most often closely follow a particular religion, and this period in time is characterized by a close marriage of science and religion. Science calls this "the time of Mythical Cosmology." Today, many consider the creation myths to be ridiculous, however, they were in some sense, the first scientific theories, and most if not all current scientific theories use them as a basis, if even to try and disprove the creation myth.
The creation myth (or creation story) is a cultural, traditional or religious myth that which describes the earliest beginnings of the present world. Creation myths are the most common form of myth, usually developing first in oral traditions, and are found throughout all human cultures. A creation myth is usually regarded by those who subscribe to it as conveying profound truths, although not necessarily in a historical or literal sense. They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmogonical myths - that is they describe the putting into order of the cosmos from a state of chaos or amorphousness.
Mythologists and Scientists have determined that there are several basic types of creation myths and stories found throughout human cultures, Eliade and his colleague Charles Long developed a classification based on some common motifs that reappear in stories the world over.
In their book; Myth and Knowing (illustrated ed.), by Leonard, Scott A; McClure, Michael (2004). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-7674-1957-4, the authors identified five basic comon motifs, and thus classified each motif by type.
The five basic classification types are as follows:
- Creation from chaos
Creation by the splitting or ordering of a primordial unity such as the cracking of a cosmic egg or a bringing order from chaos.
- Earth diver
Earth diver creation in which a diver, usually a bird or amphibian sent by a creator, plunges to the seabed through a primordial ocean to bring up sand or mud which develops into a terrestrial world.
Emergence myths in which progenitors pass through a series of worlds and metamorphoses until reaching the present world.
- Ex nihilo (out of nothing)
Creation ex nihilo in which the creation is through the thought, word, dream, or bodily secretions of a divine being.
- World Parent
Creation by the dismemberment of a primordial being.
This list is not all inclusive to be sure, and there are many more creation stories whose origins stem from all over the world, too many to include in this article. Here are some of the more popular creation stories categorized by the type Scientists have determined them to be.
Creation from chaos
Cheonjiwang Bonpuri (a Korean creation myth), Enûma Eliš (Babylonian creation myth), Greek cosmogonical myth, Jamshid, Kumulipo, Leviathan (Book of Job 38-41 creation myth), Mandé creation myth, Pangu, Raven in Creation, Serer creation myth, Sumerian creation myth, Tungusic creation myth, Unkulunkulu, Väinämöinen, Viracocha
Ainu creation myth, Cherokee creation myth, Väinämöinen, Yoruba creation myth
Hopi creation myth, Maya creation of the world myth, Diné Bahane? (Navajo), Zuni creation myth
Ex nihilo (out of nothing)
Debate between sheep and grain, Barton cylinder, Ancient Egyptian creation myths, B’ereshiyth (Genesis) creation narrative (Christianity, Islam and Judaism), Kabezya-Mpungu, Maori myths, Mbombo, Ngai, Popol Vuh, Rangi and Papa
Coatlicue, Enûma Eliš, Greek cosmogonical myth, Heliopolis creation myth, Hiranyagarbha creation myth, Kumulipo, Rangi and Papa, Völuspá
Scientists have also classified the creation stories/myths by region of origin.
Ancient Egyptian creation myths, Fon creation myth, Kaang creation story (Bushmen), Kintu myth (Bugandan), Mandé creation myth, Mbombo (Kuba, Bakuba or Bushongo/Boshongo), Ngai (Kamba, Kikuyu and Maasai), Serer creation myth (cosmogony of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania), Unkulunkulu (Zulu), Yoruba creation
Coatlicue (Aztec), Maya creation of the world myth, Popol Vuh (Quiché Mayan)
Mid North American
Anishinaabeg creation stories, Cherokee creation myth, Choctaw creation myth, Creek creation myth, Hopi creation myth, Kuterastan (Plains Apache), Diné Bahane? (Navajo), Raven in Creation (Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian), Zuni creation myth
Legend of Trentren Vilu and Caicai Vilu (Chilean), Viracocha (Incan), Xolas (Chilean)
Mongolian creation myth, Tungusic creation myth
Ainu creation myth (Japan), Au Co (Vietnamese), Chinese creation myth, Cheonjiwang Bonpuli (Korean), Dangun creation myth (Korean), Japanese creation myth, Nüwa (Chinese), Pangu (Chinese), Samseonghyeol legend (Korean)
Ajativada, Buddhist cosmology, Folk Hindu creation myth, Hiranyagarbha creation (India), Jainism and non-creationism (India), Mimamsa eternalism (India), Nyaya-Vaisheshika atomic theory (India), Samkhya-yoga theory (India)
Greek cosmogonical myth, Pelasgian creation myth (Greek), Väinämöinen (Finnish), Völuspá (Norse), Raelian creation myth (French)
Debate between sheep and grain, Enûma Eliš (Babylonian), B’ereshiyth creation myth (Hebrew), Islamic creation myth (Arabic), Mashya and Mashyana (Persian), Sumerian creation myth, Leviathan (Book of Job 38-41 creation myth)
Kumulipo (Hawaiian), Maori myths, Rangi and Papa (Maori), Sureq Galigo (Buginese)
Please note that I have underlined and used Bold text to bring your attention to the creation myth/story scientists have labeled as the B’ereshiyth creation narrative (Christianity, Islam and Judaism), as this will be what the rest of this article will focus on.
Before we procede with examining the B’ereshiyth creation narrative, I would like to point out one very interesting observation. That is, when we look closely at the current accepted scientific explanations for the origin of the universe and human kind, those being 1) the Big Bang Therory, and 2) the Therory of Evolution, we can clearly see that these theories have their basis from the five types of creation myths.
The Big Bang Theory clearly fits amoung the first and fourth types, Creation from chaos, and Ex nihilo (out of nothing). Scientists claim that the creation of the universe came about without a divine being as creator. So if we subscribe to this theory, then we are to believe that everything in the universe was created from absolutely nothing. Stephen Hawkings, the well known Cosmologist and Theoretical Physicist, has tried to demonstrate this theory in his latest work: The Theory of Everything, in which he claims the Big Bang came from a singularity which itself came from nothing. For his accomplishments, he has been the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.
The Theory of Evolution comes from the third type, Emergence which states that creation, humans and all living things, have emerged through a series of metamorphoses until reaching the modern form. All who have heard or been taught the Therory of Evolution know that the author of this theory was Charles Darwin, in his book; The Origin of Species.
Something that must be kept clearly in the forefront of our thoughts when we deal with Darwin’s theory is that in fact it is JUST that, a THEORY, and an unproven and unprovable one at that. Darwin based his theory on another theory that has long since been debunked, the theory put forward by Charles Lyell that there has never been any geological change on this planet due to any kind of catastrophe
Both of the Charles’ were sure that later discoveries in the geological record would support and prove their theories, but in fact those dicoveries have done just the opposite.
NEITHER THE BIG BANG THEORY, OR THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION HAVE BEEN OR CAN BE PROVEN, YET THEY ARE TAUGHT IN OUR ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOLS AS 100% PERCENT FACTUAL.
OUR STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO HEAR, LEARN OR STUDY ABOUT ANY OTHER POSSIBILITY OF CREATION, REGARDLESS IF THEY ARE BASED IN RELIGION OR NOT!
This sure sounds to me like the people in charge of education have no faith in their ability to teach our children and that they do not believe that our children are intelligent enough to make their own decisions. What do you think?
The B’ereshiyth creation narrative:
Every member of Christianity, Islam and Judaism knows well the story of creation as contained in scripture, detailed in the first chapter, or the book of B'ereshiyth. We have other articles which you may want to read, that further define our beliefs in creation, they are titled; In the Beginning, and The Two Creations.
Almost 55% percent of the worlds population, or 4,221,654,698 people worldwide believe in the Genesis creation according to the World Factbook, which gave the global population as 7,095,217,980 in July 2013 est. The percentage of Christians at that time was 31.50%, Muslims - followers of islam 23.20%, and “Jewish” - followers of “Judaism” at 0.22%.
We have previously detailed the many other religions around the world that believe creation was through a divine being. Now while they may not directly subsrcibe to creation through the one living deity, whose name is Yahuwah, in the book of B'ereshiyth. They do believe that a divine deity created all things and not that all things just came about from nothing.
Personally, we believe the origin of creation is just common sense, and that creation of all things, the universe and mankind, by a divine deity can actually be proven through science.
Consider this, in everything we can observe in nature, on our planet, or even in space throughout the universe, there are universal natural laws that apply to everything. Science has defined these laws in what has come to be known as the Laws of Physics. The basic laws of physics fall into two categories: classical physics that deals with the observable world (classical mechanics), and atomic physics that deals with the interactions between elementary and sub atomic particles (quantum mechanics).
Scientists use the scientific method to determine the accuracy of and to verify a hypothesis. The scientific method is an orderly technique of investigation consisting of the following steps: (1) Careful observations of nature. (2) Deduction of natural laws. (3) Formation of hypotheses - generalizations of those laws to previously unobserved phenomena. (4) Experimental or observational testing of the validity of the predictions thus made. The scientific method either validates a hypothesis, if the hypothesis is repeatable under the experimental or observational testing, or refutes the hypothesis if valid evidence for it cannot be established. (Using this “scientific method” correctly absolutely invalidates both Charles Darwin’s and Charles Lyell’s theories.)
The following scientific experiments detail exactly why I believe science proves that creation must come from a divine deity. You can try these experiments for yourself and see the results.
The First Experiment:
1) establish the test environment. This can be an empty container of any type or size so long as it is able to be sealed. A box, jar, envelope, closet or even a room or building will work.
2) establish the duration of the test. You can define any amount or period of time for the test that you choose. From a second to a year, or even a decade.
Once you have obtained your container, observe that it is completely empty and void of any and all materials. Upon verification, seal the container. Continuous observation of the container must be made to ensure that the seal is not broken during the entire duration of the experiment. After your predetermined duration time has expired, open the container and observe its contents.
What did you find in the container?
Now in order to verify the experiment, it must be repeatable. You must run the experiment, again, in exactly the same manner for a minimum of five times. After each experiment observe and record your findings.
Again what did you find in the container? If your findings are the same for every test, you can say that the experiment seems to be repeatable. To say this with out any doubt the experiment should be repeated as many times as necessary to conclude without a shadow of a doubt that the experiment will never have a different result.
When I tried this experiment it did not take me very long at all to come to the conclusion that nothing is the only thing that can be created from nothing. Try as I may, no matter how many times I ran the experiment, the result remained the same. This is also observable in nature, it is a natural law, that something can not be made out of nothing. This scientific experiment disproves the Big Bang Theory and Stephen Hawkings Theory of Everything.
Something can not be made out of nothing!
The Second Experiment:
1) establish the test environment. This must be a suitable container capable of sustaining life, therefore it must be accessible to provide the necessary components to sustain life, i.e. food, water, air, etc. Your residence or a room or container within them will work.
2) establish the participants of the test. You must choose two life forms, one male and one female, from a different kind, i.e., a cat and dog, a rabbit and bird, a fish and frog. It does not matter which two life forms as long as they are both from a different kind of species.
3) establish the duration of the test. You can define any amount or period of time for the test that you choose, however, it must be long enough for the two life forms to mate and for the gestation period (length of time from pregnancy to birth). From six months to a year, or more depending on the species selected.
Once you have chosen your two participating species, and placed them in your suitable test environment, continue to observe the test subjects to see if they will mate. If mating is observed, continue observation to see if the female has become pregnant. If mating is not observed after the duration of your experiment you may wish to try the experiment for another duration, or select a different set of participants for the experiment. Continue the experiment until you either prove the results are repeatable, or until you observe a different result, at which time you will need to run the experiment many more times to see if you continue to get different results.
I continue to run this experiment on a daily basis. I have two female dogs and one male cat in the experiment that has been ongoing now for over five years. Previously, I ran this same experiment with other test subjects and have found my results to always be repeatable. I have never observed any of the test subjects mating together. Try as I may, no matter how many times I ran the experiment, the result remained the same. This is also observable in nature, it is a natural law, that life forms from different species will and can not mate together to produce a different species.
This scientific experiment disproves Darwin's Theory of Evolution, as in his book The Origin of Species, Darwin theorized that life evolved over millions of years with the strongest surviving. He goes on to state that over time life evolved from one species or kind into another. People have observed nature throughout history, and in all of recorded history there is not one recorded occurrence of a new species being born from the interaction of two different species. Scientific experiments trying artificial insemination have been preformed countless times trying to cross breed species without success. It is however true that you can cross breed within a species to develop certain traits, and this has been successfully done for many centuries as seen in the many different types of domestic animals such as dogs and cats. But to try to breed between species simply can not be done. It goes against the natural law. Therefore no species could evolve into any other form of species. The idea of mankind evolving from an ape is simply laughable, let alone to think that we evolved from a one-celled organism.
STILL THIS IS WHAT ARE CHILDREN ARE BEING TAUGHT AS TRUTH IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS!
So it has come time to ask yourself, what do you believe?
Do you believe that the universe and everything in it came from nothing? A theory which can be disproved using the scientific method?
Do you believe that humans have evolved from a one-celled organism over millions and millions of years? A theory which can also be disproved using the scientific method?
Do you now believe, or are you open to the possibility that the universe and everything in it just might have come from a Supreme Being as the majority of the world’s population believes?
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